Canada Comprehensive Country Report

The following is a comprehensive report on Canada

 

Within this report you will find information that may be of use to you in evaluating the suitability, attractiveness or otherwise of your involvement with the country of Canada for the purposes of obtaining a passport from that country, doing business with that country or living in that country.

 

You may download your personal copy of this complete 20+ page comprehensive country report on Canada (Quebec) by clicking on the image below.

CANADA – Country Report

 

Background:

 

canada-quebec-country-report

Click the image to download your personal report on Canada (Quebec)

A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867, while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically, the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across the world’s longest international border. Canada faces the political challenges of meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care, education, social services, and economic competitiveness, as well as responding to the particular concerns of predominantly francophone Quebec. Canada also aims to develop its diverse energy resources while maintaining its commitment to the environment.

Geography: CANADA

Location:

Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north, north of the conterminous US

Geographic coordinates:

60 00 N, 95 00 W

Map references:

North America

Area:

Total: 9,984,670 sq km

Land: 9,093,507 sq km

Water: 891,163 sq km

Country comparison to the world: 2

Area – comparative:

Slightly larger than the US

Land boundaries:

Total: 8,893 km

Border countries (1): US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)

Note: Canada is the world’s largest country that borders only one country

Coastline:

202,080 km

Climate:

Varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north

Terrain:

Mostly plains with mountains in west, lowlands in southeast

Elevation:

Mean elevation: 487 m

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

Highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m

Natural resources:

Iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, rare earth elements, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, and hydropower

Land use:

Agricultural land: 6.8%

Arable land 4.7%; permanent crops 0.5%; permanent pasture 1.6%

Forest: 34.1%

Other: 59.1% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land:

8,700 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources:

2,902 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

Total: 42.2 cu km/yr (20%/70%/10%)

Per capita: 1,589 cu m/yr (2010)

Natural hazards:

Continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country’s rain and snow east of the mountains

Volcanism: the vast majority of volcanoes in Western Canada’s Coast Mountains remain dormant

Environment – current issues:

Metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities

Environment – international agreements:

Party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

Signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Marine Life Conservation

Geography – note:

Second-largest country in world (after Russia) and largest in the Americas; strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km (100 mi) of the US border; Canada has more fresh water than any other country and almost 9% of Canadian territory is water; Canada has at least 2 million and possibly over 3 million lakes – that is more than all other countries combined

People and Society: CANADA

Nationality:

Noun: Canadian(s)

Adjective: Canadian

 

Ethnic groups:

Canadian 32.2%, English 19.8%, French 15.5%, Scottish 14.4%, Irish 13.8%, German 9.8%, Italian 4.5%, Chinese 4.5%, North American Indian 4.2%, other 50.9%

Note: percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic origin (2011 est.)

Languages:

English (official) 58.7%, French (official) 22%, Punjabi 1.4%, Italian 1.3%, Spanish 1.3%, German 1.3%, Cantonese 1.2%, Tagalog 1.2%, Arabic 1.1%, other 10.5% (2011 est.)

Religions:

Catholic 39% (includes Roman Catholic 38.8%, other Catholic .2%), Protestant 20.3% (includes United Church 6.1%, Anglican 5%, Baptist 1.9%, Lutheran 1.5%, Pentecostal 1.5%, Presbyterian 1.4%, other Protestant 2.9%), Orthodox 1.6%, other Christian 6.3%, Muslim 3.2%, Hindu 1.5%, Sikh 1.4%, Buddhist 1.1%, Jewish 1%, other 0.6%, none 23.9% (2011 est.)

Population:

35,099,836 (July 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 39

Age structure:

0-14 years: 15.46% (male 2,781,043/female 2,644,008)

15-24 years: 12.39% (male 2,236,425/female 2,111,681)

25-54 years: 40.69% (male 7,239,027/female 7,041,886)

55-64 years: 13.74% (male 2,389,423/female 2,433,621)

65 years and over: 17.73% (male 2,766,909/female 3,455,813) (2015 est.)

Median age:

Total: 42 years

Male: 40.8 years

Female: 43.3 years (2016 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 29

Population growth rate:

0.75% (2015 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 146

Birth rate:

10.28 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 190

Death rate:

8.42 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 81

Net migration rate:

5.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 22

Urbanization:

Urban population: 81.8% of total population (2015)

Rate of urbanization: 1.22% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas – population:

Toronto 5.993 million; Montreal 3.981 million; Vancouver 2.485 million; Calgary 1.337 million; OTTAWA (capital) 1.326 million; Edmonton 1.272 million (2015)

Sex ratio:

At birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female

Total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother’s mean age at first birth:

28.1 (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:

7 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 147

Infant mortality rate:

Total: 4.65 deaths/1,000 live births

Male: 4.97 deaths/1,000 live births

Female: 4.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 179

Life expectancy at birth:

Total population: 81.76 years

Male: 79.15 years

Female: 84.52 years (2015 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 18

Total fertility rate:

1.59 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 184

Health expenditures:

10.4% of GDP (2014)

Country comparison to the world: 15

Physician’s density:

2.07 physicians/1,000 population (2010)

 

Hospital bed density:

2.7 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source:

Improved:

Urban: 100% of population

Rural: 99% of population

Total: 99.8% of population

Unimproved:

Urban: 0% of population

Rural: 1% of population

Total: 0.2% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access:

Improved:

Urban: 100% of population

Rural: 99% of population

Total: 99.8% of population

Unimproved:

Urban: 0% of population

Rural: 1% of population

Total: 0.2% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate:

NA

HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS:

NA

HIV/AIDS – deaths:

Fewer than 400 (2013 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 89

Obesity – adult prevalence rate:

30.1% (2014)

Country comparison to the world: 48

Education expenditures:

5.3% of GDP (2011)

Country comparison to the world: 62

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:

Total: 13.5%

Male: 15%

Female: 11.9% (2014 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 81

Government: CANADA

Country name:

Conventional long form: none

Conventional short form: Canada

Etymology: the country name derives from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word “kanata” meaning village or settlement

Government type:

Federal parliamentary democracy (Parliament of Canada) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm

Capital:

Name: Ottawa

Geographic coordinates: 45 25 N, 75 42 W

Time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November

Note: Canada has six time zones

Administrative divisions:

10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon*

Independence:

1 July 1867 (union of British North American colonies); 11 December 1931 (recognized by UK per Statute of Westminster)

National holiday:

Canada Day, 1 July (1867)

Constitution:

Made up of unwritten and written acts, customs, judicial decisions, and traditions dating from 1763; the written part of the constitution consists of the Constitution Act of 29 March 1867, which created a federation of four provinces, and the Constitution Act of 17 April 1982; several amendments to the 1982 Constitution Act, last in 2011 (2016)

Legal system:

Common law system except in Quebec, where civil law based on the French civil code prevails

International law organization participation:

Accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship:

Citizenship by birth: yes

Citizenship by descent: yes

Dual citizenship recognized: yes

Residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

Head of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General David JOHNSTON (since 1 October 2010)

Head of government: Prime Minister Justin Pierre James TRUDEAU (Liberal Party) (since 4 November 2015)

Cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister usually from among members of his own party sitting in Parliament

Elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a 5-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition in the House of Commons generally designated prime minister by the governor general

Legislative branch:

Description: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (105 seats; members appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister and can serve until age 75) and the House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (338 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve a maximum of 4-year terms)

Elections: House of Commons – last held on 19 October 2015 (next to be held in 2019)

Election results: House of Commons – percent of vote by party – Liberal Party 39.5%, Conservative Party 31.9%, NDP 19.7%, Bloc Quebecois 4.7%, Greens 3.4%, other .8%; seats by party – Liberal Party 184, Conservative Party 99, NDP 44, Bloc Quebecois 10, Greens 1

Judicial branch:

Highest court(s): Supreme Court of Canada (consists of the chief justice and 8 judges); note – in 1949, Canada abolished all appeals beyond its Supreme Court to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London)

Judge selection and term of office: chief justice and judges appointed by the prime minister in council; all judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 75

Subordinate courts: federal level: Federal Court of Appeal; Federal Court; Tax Court; federal administrative tribunals; courts martial; provincial/territorial: provincial superior, appeals, first instance, and specialized courts; in 1999, the Nunavut Court – a circuit court with the power of a superior court and the territorial courts – was established to serve isolated settlements

 

Political parties and leaders:

Bloc Quebecois [Rheal FORTIN (interim leader)]

Conservative Party of Canada or CPC [Rona AMBROSE (interim leader)]

Green Party [Elizabeth MAY]

Liberal Party [Justin TRUDEAU]

New Democratic Party or NDP [Thomas MULCAIR]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Other: agricultural sector; automobile industry; business groups; chemical industry; commercial banks; communications sector; energy industry; environmentalists; public administration groups; steel industry; trade unions

International organization participation:

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CD, CDB, CE (observer), EAPC, EBRD, EITI (implementing country), FAO, FATF, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAFTA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:

Chief of mission: Ambassador David Brookes MACNAUGHTON (since 2 March 2016)

Chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001

Telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740

FAX: [1] (202) 682-7726

Consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, San Francisco/Silicon Valley, Seattle

Trade office(s): Houston, Palo Alto (CA), San Diego; note – there are trade offices in the Consulates General

 

Diplomatic representation from the US:

Chief of mission: Ambassador Bruce A. HEYMAN (since 8 April 2014)

Embassy: 490 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 1G8

Mailing address: P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburg, NY 13669-0430; P.O. Box 866, Station B, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 5T1

Telephone: [1] (613) 688-5335

FAX: [1] (613) 688-3082

Consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec City, Toronto, Vancouver

Flag description:

Two vertical bands of red (hoist and fly side, half width) with white square between them; an 11-pointed red maple leaf is centered in the white square; the maple leaf has long been a Canadian symbol

National symbol(s):

Maple leaf, beaver; national colors: red, white

National anthem:

Name: “O Canada”

Lyrics/music: Adolphe-Basile ROUTHIER [French], Robert Stanley WEIR [English]/Calixa LAVALLEE

Note: adopted 1980; originally written in 1880, “O Canada” served as an unofficial anthem many years before its official adoption; the anthem has French and English versions whose lyrics differ; as a Commonwealth realm, in addition to the national anthem, “God Save the Queen” serves as the royal anthem (see United Kingdom)

Economy: CANADA

Economy – overview:

As a high-tech industrial society in the trillion-dollar class, Canada resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and high living standards. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. In addition, the country’s petroleum sector is rapidly expanding, because Alberta’s oil sands significantly boosted Canada’s proven oil reserves. Canada now ranks third in the world in proved oil reserves behind Venezuela and Saudi Arabia and is the world’s fifth-largest oil producer.

The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade Agreement and the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (which includes Mexico) touched off a dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the US, its principal trading partner. Canada enjoys a substantial trade surplus with the US, which absorbs about three-fourths of Canadian merchandise exports each year. Canada is the US’s largest foreign supplier of energy, including oil, gas, and electric power, and a top source of US uranium imports.

Given its abundant natural resources, highly skilled labor force, and modern capital plant, Canada enjoyed solid economic growth from 1993 through 2007. Buffeted by the global economic crisis, the economy dropped into a sharp recession in the final months of 2008, and Ottawa posted its first fiscal deficit in 2009 after 12 years of surplus. Canada’s major banks, however, emerged from the financial crisis of 2008-09 among the strongest in the world, owing to the early intervention by the Bank of Canada and the financial sector’s tradition of conservative lending practices and strong capitalization. Canada achieved marginal growth in 2010-15, despite the recent drop in oil prices.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$1.632 trillion (2015 est.)

$1.613 trillion (2014 est.)

$1.574 trillion (2013 est.)

Note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Country comparison to the world: 16

GDP (official exchange rate):

$1.552 trillion (2015 est.)

GDP – real growth rate:

1.2% (2015 est.)

2.5% (2014 est.)

2.2% (2013 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 163

 

GDP – per capita (PPP):

$45,600 (2015 est.)

$45,400 (2014 est.)

$44,800 (2013 est.)

Note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Country comparison to the world: 32

Gross national saving:

20.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

22% of GDP (2014 est.)

21.5% of GDP (2013 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 79

GDP – composition, by end use:

Household consumption: 56.7%

Government consumption: 21%

Investment in fixed capital: 23.3%

Investment in inventories: 0.3%

Exports of goods and services: 32.2%

Imports of goods and services: -33.5% (2015 est.)

GDP – composition, by sector of origin:

Agriculture: 1.6%

Industry: 28.9%

Services: 70.5% (2015 est.)

Agriculture – products:

Wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; fish; forest products

Industries:

Transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum, natural gas

Industrial production growth rate:

2.3% (2015 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 105

Labor force:

19.3 million (2015 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 31

Labor force – by occupation:

Agriculture: 2%

Manufacturing: 13%

Construction: 6%

Services: 76%

Other: 3% (2006 est.)

Unemployment rate:

6.9% (2015 est.)

6.9% (2014 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 80

Population below poverty line:

9.4%

Note: this figure is the Low Income Cut-Off, a calculation that results in higher figures than found in many comparable economies; Canada does not have an official poverty line (2008 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

Lowest 10%: 2.6%

Highest 10%: 24.8% (2000)

Distribution of family income – Gini index:

32.1 (2005)

31.5 (1994)

Country comparison to the world: 110

Budget:

Revenues: $585 billion

Expenditures: $614.1 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:

37.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 48

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

-1.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 70

Public debt:

95.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

94.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

Note: figures are for gross general government debt, as opposed to net federal debt; gross general government debt includes both intragovernmental debt and the debt of public entities at the sub-national level

Country comparison to the world: 20

Fiscal year:

1 April – 31 March

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

1.1% (2015 est.)

1.9% (2014 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 83

 

Central bank discount rate:

1% (31 December 2010)

0.25% (31 December 2009)

Country comparison to the world: 124

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

2.7% (31 December 2015 est.)

3% (31 December 2014 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 172

Stock of narrow money:

$579.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$629.6 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 9

Stock of broad money:

$1.486 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)

$1.47 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 13

Stock of domestic credit:

$2.714 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)

$2.97 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 9

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$2.016 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)

$1.907 trillion (31 December 2011)

$2.16 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 7

Current account balance:

-$51.38 billion (2015 est.)

-$40.59 billion (2014 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 193

Exports:

$428.3 billion (2015 est.)

$478.4 billion (2014 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 13

Exports – commodities:

Motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum

Exports – partners:

US 76.7% (2015)

Imports:

$440.9 billion (2015 est.)

$473.8 billion (2014 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 9

Imports – commodities:

Machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil, chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods

Imports – partners:

US 53.1%, China 12.2%, Mexico 5.8% (2015)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$74.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$71.94 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 30

Debt – external:

$1.491 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)

$1.395 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 13

Stock of direct foreign investment – at home:

$1.012 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)

$940.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 10

Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad:

$1.18 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.137 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 9

Exchange rates:

Canadian dollars (CAD) per US dollar –

1.275 (2015 est.)

1.1047 (2014 est.)

1.0298 (2013 est.)

0.9992 (2012 est.)

0.9895 (2011 est.)

Energy: CANADA

Electricity – production:

616.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 7

Electricity – consumption:

511 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 8

Electricity – exports:

58.4 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 4

Electricity – imports:

12.8 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 14

Electricity – installed generating capacity:

135 million kW (2012 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 8

Electricity – from fossil fuels:

25.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 187

Electricity – from nuclear fuels:

10% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 19

Electricity – from hydroelectric plants:

55.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 41

Electricity – from other renewable sources:

8.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 45

Crude oil – production:

3.89 million bbl/day (2015 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 5

Crude oil – exports:

2.9 million bbl/day (2014 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 3

Crude oil – imports:

700,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 16

Crude oil – proved reserves:

171 billion bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 3

Refined petroleum products – production:

1.894 million bbl/day (2013 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 11

Refined petroleum products – consumption:

2.413 million bbl/day (2014 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 9

Refined petroleum products – exports:

515,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 13

Refined petroleum products – imports:

230,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 29

Natural gas – production:

151.2 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 5

Natural gas – consumption:

104.4 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 7

Natural gas – exports:

77.96 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 5

Natural gas – imports:

21.89 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 15

Natural gas – proved reserves:

1.889 trillion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 18

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:

550.8 million Mt (2012 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 12

Communications: CANADA

Telephones – fixed lines:

Total subscriptions: 15.902 million

Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 45 (July 2015 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 17

Telephones – mobile cellular:

Total: 29.39 million

Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 84 (July 2015 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 44

 

Telephone system:

General assessment: excellent service provided by modern technology

Domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations

International: country code – 1; submarine cables provide links to the US and Europe; satellite earth stations – 7 (5 Intelsat – 4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean, and 2 Intersputnik – Atlantic Ocean region) (2011)

Broadcast media:

2 public TV broadcasting networks each with a large number of network affiliates; several private-commercial networks also with multiple network affiliates; overall, about 150 TV stations; multi-channel satellite and cable systems provide access to a wide range of stations including US stations; mix of public and commercial radio broadcasters with the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), the public radio broadcaster, operating 4 radio networks, Radio Canada International, and radio services to indigenous populations in the north; roughly 2,000 licensed radio stations (2008)

Radio broadcast stations:

AM 245, FM 582, shortwave 6 (2004)

Television broadcast stations:

148 (2007)

Internet country code:

.ca

Internet hosts:

8.743 million (2012)

Country comparison to the world: 14

Internet users:

Total: 31.053 million

Percent of population: 88.5% (July 2015 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 21

 

Transportation: CANADA

Airports:

1,467 (2013)

Country comparison to the world: 4

Airports – with paved runways:

Total: 523

Over 3,047 m: 21

2,438 to 3,047 m: 19

1,524 to 2,437 m: 147

914 to 1,523 m: 257

Under 914 m: 79 (2013)

Airports – with unpaved runways:

Total: 944

1,524 to 2,437 m: 75

914 to 1,523 m: 385

Under 914 m: 484 (2013)

Heliports:

26 (2013)

Pipelines:

Gas and liguid petroleum 100,000 km (2013)

Railways:

Total: 77,932 km

Standard gauge: 77,932 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)

Country comparison to the world: 4

 

Roadways:

Total: 1,042,300 km

Paved: 415,600 km (includes 17,000 km of expressways)

Unpaved: 626,700 km (2011)

Country comparison to the world: 7

Waterways:

636 km (Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint Lawrence River of 3,058 km, shared with United States) (2011)

Country comparison to the world: 77

Merchant marine:

Total: 181

By type: bulk carrier 62, cargo 15, carrier 1, chemical tanker 15, combination ore/oil 1, container 2, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 63, petroleum tanker 11, roll on/roll off 6

Foreign-owned: 19 (Estonia 1, France 1, Netherlands 1, Norway 4, Sweden 2, US 10)

Registered in other countries: 225 (Australia 5, Bahamas 96, Barbados 11, Cambodia 2, Cyprus 2, Honduras 1, Hong Kong 77, Liberia 2, Malta 5, Marshall Islands 8, Norway 1, Panama 6, Spain 4, Vanuatu 5) (2010)

Country comparison to the world: 35

Ports and terminals:

Major seaport(s): Halifax, Saint John (New Brunswick), Vancouver

River and lake port(s): Montreal, Quebec City, Sept-Isles (St. Lawrence); Fraser River Port (Fraser); Hamilton (Lake Ontario)

Oil terminal(s): Lower Lakes terminal

Dry bulk cargo port(s): Port-Cartier (iron ore and grain),

Container port(s): Montreal (1,362,975), Vancouver (2,507,032)(2011)

LNG terminal(s) (import): Saint John

 

Military and Security: CANADA

Military branches:

Canadian Forces: Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Canadian Air Force, Canadian Joint Operations Command (2015)

Military service age and obligation:

17 years of age for voluntary male and female military service (with parental consent); 16 years of age for Reserve and Military College applicants; Canadian citizenship or permanent residence status required; maximum 34 years of age; service obligation 3-9 years (2012)

Military expenditures:

1% of GDP (2015)

1% of GDP (2014)

1% of GDP (2013)

1.24% of GDP (2012)

1.31% of GDP (2011)

Country comparison to the world: 80

Transnational Issues: CANADA

Disputes – international:

Managed maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and the Gulf of Maine, including the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; Canada and the United States dispute how to divide the Beaufort Sea and the status of the Northwest Passage but continue to work cooperatively to survey the Arctic continental shelf; US works closely with Canada to intensify security measures for monitoring and controlling legal and illegal movement of people, transport, and commodities across the international border; sovereignty dispute with Denmark over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland; commencing the collection of technical evidence for submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf in support of claims for continental shelf beyond 200 nm from its declared baselines in the Arctic, as stipulated in Article 76, paragraph 8, of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea

 

 

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

Refugees (country of origin): 13,666 (Colombia); 11,415 (China); 8,807 (Haiti); 8,807 (Sri Lanka); 7,207 (Pakistan); 6,414 (Mexico) (2015)

Illicit drugs:

Illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market and export to US; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; increasing ecstasy production, some of which is destined for the US; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering because of its mature financial services sector