Portugal Comprehensive Country Report

The following is a comprehensive report on Portugal


Within this report you will find information that may be of use to you in evaluating the suitability, attractiveness or otherwise of your involvement with the country of Portugal for the purposes of obtaining a passport from that country, doing business with that country or living in that country.


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PORTUGAL – Country Report





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Following its heyday as a global maritime power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of Brazil, its wealthiest colony, in 1822. A 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy; for most of the next six decades, repressive governments ran the country. In 1974, a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year, Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal is a founding member of NATO and entered the EC (now the EU) in 1986.


Geography: PORTUGAL


Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain

Geographic coordinates:

39 30 N, 8 00 W

Map references:



Total: 92,090 sq. km

Land: 91,470 sq. km

Water: 620 sq. km

Note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands

Country comparison to the world: 111

Area – comparative:

Slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries:

Total: 1,224 km

Border countries (1): Spain 1,224 km


1,793 km


Maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south


The west-flowing Tagus River divides the country: the north is mountainous toward the interior, while the south is characterized by rolling plains


Mean elevation: 372 m

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

Highest point: Ponta do Pico (Pico or Pico Alto) on Ilha do Pico in the Azores 2,351 m

Natural resources:

fish, forests (cork), iron ore, copper, zinc, tin, tungsten, silver, gold, uranium, marble, clay, gypsum, salt, arable land, hydropower

Land use:

Agricultural land: 39.7%

Arable land 11.9%; permanent crops 7.8%; permanent pasture 20%

Forest: 37.8%

Other: 22.5% (2011 EST.)

Irrigated land:

5,400 sq. km (2012)

Total renewable water resources:

68.7 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

Total: 8.46 cu km/yr. (12%/18%/69%)

Per capita: 812 cu m/yr. (2005)

Natural hazards:

Azores subject to severe earthquakes

volcanism: limited volcanic activity in the Azores Islands; Fayal or Faial (elev. 1,043 m) last erupted in 1958; most volcanoes have not erupted in centuries; historically active volcanoes include Agua de Pau, Furnas, Pico, Picos Volcanic System, San Jorge, Sete Cidades, and Terceira

Environment – current issues:

Soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in coastal areas

Environment – international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

Signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Environmental Modification

Geography – note:

Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

People and Society: PORTUGAL


Noun: Portuguese (singular and plural)

Adjective: Portuguese

Ethnic groups:

homogeneous Mediterranean stock; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000; since 1990 East Europeans have entered Portugal


Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official, but locally used)


Roman Catholic 81%, other Christian 3.3%, other (includes Jewish, Muslim, other) 0.6%, none 6.8%, unspecified 8.3%

Note: represents population 15 years of age and older (2011 EST.)


10,825,309 (July 2015 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 81

Age structure:

0-14 years: 15.68% (male 884,389/female 812,685)

15-24 years: 11.41% (male 655,259/female 580,020)

25-54 years: 42.05% (male 2,303,473/female 2,248,914)

55-64 years: 11.97% (male 604,549/female 691,216)

65 years and over: 18.89% (male 836,679/female 1,208,125) (2015 EST.)

Dependency ratios:

Total dependency ratio: 53.5%

Youth dependency ratio: 21.6%

Elderly dependency ratio: 31.9%

Potential support ratio: 3.1% (2015 EST.)

Median age:

Total: 41.5 years

Male: 39.4 years

Female: 43.6 years (2015 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 31

Population growth rate:

0.09% (2015 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 189

Birth rate:

9.27 births/1,000 population (2015 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 205

Death rate:

11.02 deaths/1,000 population (2015 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 33

Net migration rate:

2.67 migrant(s)/1,000 populations (2015 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 39


Urban population: 63.5% of total population (2015)

Rate of urbanization: 0.97% annual rate of change (2010-15 EST.)

Major urban areas – population:

LISBON (capital) 2.884 million; Porto 1.299 million (2015)

Sex ratio:

At birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.09 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.13 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female

Total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2015 EST.)

Mother’s mean age at first birth:

29.5 (2012 EST.)

Maternal mortality rate:

10 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 162

Infant mortality rate:

Total: 4.43 deaths/1,000 live births

Male: 4.86 deaths/1,000 live births

Female: 3.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 185

Life expectancy at birth:

Total population: 79.16 years

Male: 75.92 years

Female: 82.62 years (2015 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 49

Total fertility rate:

1.52 children born/woman (2015 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 192

Contraceptive prevalence rate:

86.8% (2005/06)

Health expenditures:

9.5% of GDP (2014)

Country comparison to the world: 29

Physician’s density:

4.1 physicians/1,000 population (2012)

Hospital bed density:

3.4 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source:


Urban: 100% of population

Rural: 100% of population

Total: 100% of population


Urban: 0% of population

Rural: 0% of population

Total: 0% of population (2015 EST.)

Sanitation facility access:


Urban: 99.6% of population

Rural: 99.8% of population

Total: 99.7% of population


Urban: 0.4% of population

Rural: 0.2% of population

Total: 0.3% of population (2015 EST.)

HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate:


HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS:


HIV/AIDS – deaths:


Obesity – adult prevalence rate:

22.1% (2014)

Country comparison to the world: 69

Education expenditures:

5.1% of GDP (2011)

Country comparison to the world: 55


Definition: age 15 and over can read and write

Total population: 95.7%

Male: 97.1%

Female: 94.4% (2015 EST.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

Total: 17 years

Male: 17 years

Female: 17 years (2014)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:

Total: 38.1%

Male: 36.7%

Female: 39.6% (2013 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 16

Government: PORTUGAL

Country name:

Conventional long form: Portuguese Republic

Conventional short form: Portugal

Local long form: Republica Portuguesa

Local short form: Portugal

Etymology: name derives from the Roman designation “Portus Cale” meaning “Port of Cale”; Cale was an ancient Celtic town and port in present-day northern Portugal

Government type:

Semi-presidential republic


Name: Lisbon

Geographic coordinates: 38 43 N, 9 08 W

Time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:

18 districts (distritos, singular – distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular – regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa (Lisbon), Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu


1143 (Kingdom of Portugal recognized); 5 October 1910 (republic proclaimed)

National holiday:

Portugal Day (Dia de Portugal), 10 June (1580); note – also called Camoes Day, the day that revered national poet Luis de Camoes (1524-80) died


Several previous; latest adopted 2 April 1976, effective 25 April 1976; amended several times, last in 2005 (2016)

Legal system:

Civil law system; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts

International law organization participation:

Accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


Citizenship by birth: no

Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Portugal

Dual citizenship recognized: yes

Residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years; 6 years if from a Portuguese speaking country


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

Chief of state: President Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA (since 9 March 2016)

Head of government: Prime Minister Antonio Luis Santos da COSTA (since 24 November 2015)

Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 January 2016 (next to be held in January 2021); following legislative elections which must be held by October 2015, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president

election results: Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA elected president; percent of vote – Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA (PSD) 52%, Antonio Sampaio da NOVA (independent) 22.9%, Marisa MATISA (BE) 10.1%, Maria de BELEM (independent) 4.2%, other 10.8%

Note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president

Legislative branch:

description: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (230 seats; 226 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 4 members – 2 each in 2 constituencies representing Portuguese living abroad – directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

Elections: last held on 4 October 2015 (next to be held by October 2019)

election results: percent of vote by party – Portugal Ahead Coalition (PAF) 36.9%, PS 32.3%, B.E. 10.2%, CDU 8.2%, PPD/PSD (Azores and Madeira) 1.5%, PAN 1.4%, other 9.5%; seats by party – PAF 102, PS 86, B.E. 19, CDU 17, PPD/PSD (Azores and Madeira) 5, PAN 1

Judicial branch:

Highest court(s): Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (consists of 12 justices); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 13 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices nominated by the president and appointed by the Assembly of the Republic; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court judges – 10 elected by the Assembly and 3 elected by the other Constitutional Court judges; judges elected for 6-year non-renewable terms

Subordinate courts: Supreme Administrative Court (Supremo Tribunal Administrativo); Audit Court (Tribunal de Contas); appellate, district, and municipal courts

Political parties and leaders:

Democratic and Social Center/Popular Party or CDS/PP [Paulo PORTAS]

Ecologist Party (The Greens) or PEV [Heloisa APOLONIA]

Portuguese Communist Party or PCP [Jeronimo DE SOUSA]

Portugal Ahead Coalition or PAF (includes PSD and CDS/PP)

Social Democratic Party or PPD/PSD [Pedro PASSOS COELHO]

Socialist Party or PS [Antonio COSTA]

The Left Bloc or BE [Catarina Soares MARTINS]

Unitarian Democratic Coalition or CDU [Jeronimo DE SOUSA] (includes Portuguese Communist Party or PCP and Ecologist Party (“The Greens”) or PEV)

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Armed Forces Officers’ Association or AOFA [Colonel Pereira CRACEL]

The Desperate Generation (youth movement protesting against low wages, precarious labor conditions, and unemployment)

General Workers Union or General Confederation of Portuguese Workers or UGT [Carlos SILVA]

Portuguese National Workers’ Conference or CGTP [Armenio CARLOS]

TugaLeaks (a website that has become a mouthpiece for publicizing diverse protest action)

Other: the media; labor unions

International organization participation:

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CERN, CPLP, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:

Chief of mission: Ambassador Domingos T?eixeira de Abreu Fezas VITAL (since 28 January 2016)

Chancery: 2012 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

Telephone: [1] (202) 328-8610

FAX: [1] (202) 462-3726

Consulate general: Boston, New York, San Francisco

Consulate: New Bedford (MA), Newark (NJ), Providence (RI)

Diplomatic representation from the US:

Chief of mission: Ambassador Robert A. SHERMAN (since 30 May 2014)

Embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600-081 Lisbon

Mailing address: Apartado 43033, 1601-301 Lisboa; PSC 83, APO AE 09726

Telephone: [351] (21) 727-3300

FAX: [351] (21) 726-9109

Consulate: Ponta Delgada (Azores)

Flag description:

two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths) with the national coat of arms (armillary sphere and Portuguese shield) centered on the dividing line; explanations for the color meanings are ambiguous, but a popular interpretation has green symbolizing hope and red the blood of those defending the nation

National symbol(s):

Armillary sphere (a spherical astrolabe modeling objects in the sky and representing the Republic); national colors: red, green

National anthem:

Name: “A Portugesa” (The Song of the Portuguese)

Lyrics/music: Henrique LOPES DE MENDOCA/Alfredo KEIL

note: adopted 1910; “A Portuguesa” was originally written to protest the Portuguese monarchy’s acquiescence to the 1890 British ultimatum forcing Portugal to give up areas of Africa; the lyrics refer to the “insult” that resulted from the event


Economy – overview:

Portugal has become a diversified and increasingly service-based economy since joining the European Community – the EU’s predecessor – in 1986. Over the following two decades, successive governments privatized many state-controlled firms and liberalized key areas of the economy, including the financial and telecommunications sectors. The country joined the Economic and Monetary Union in 1999 and began circulating the euro on 1 January 2002 along with 11 other EU members.

The economy grew by more than the EU average for much of the 1990s, but the rate of growth slowed in 2001-08. The economy contracted in 2009, and fell again from 2011 to 2014, as the government implemented spending cuts and tax increases to comply with conditions of an EU-IMF financial rescue package, signed in May 2011. A modest recovery began in 2013 and gathered steam in 2014 due to strong export performance and a rebound in private consumption. Although austerity measures were instituted to reduce the large budget deficit, they contributed to record unemployment and a wave of emigration not seen since the 1960s.

A continued reduction in private- and public-sector debt could weigh on consumption and investment in 2016, holding back a stronger recovery. The prior center-right government passed legislation aimed at reducing labor market rigidity, and, this, along with sustained fiscal discipline, could make Portugal more attractive to foreign direct investment. Under the center-right government, the budget deficit fell from 11.2% of GDP in 2010 to 3.5% in 2015, reaching the EU-IMF target of 4%, but still above its EU fiscal obligations, under the excessive deficit procedure. EU-IMF financing expired in May 2014. The new center-left Socialist government, however, has signaled that it will unwind spending cuts associated with austerity while remaining within EU fiscal targets.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$289.8 billion (2015 EST.)

$285.6 billion (2014 EST.)

$283 billion (2013 EST.)

Note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Country comparison to the world: 53

GDP (official exchange rate):

$199.1 billion (2015 EST.)

GDP – real growth rate:

1.5% (2015 EST.)

0.9% (2014 EST.)

-1.1% (2013 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 158

GDP – per capita (PPP):

$27,800 (2015 EST.)

$27,500 (2014 EST.)

$27,100 (2013 EST.)

Note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Country comparison to the world: 66

Gross national saving:

15.6% of GDP (2015 EST.)

15.3% of GDP (2014 EST.)

15.3% of GDP (2013 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 109

GDP – composition, by end use:

Household consumption: 66.2%

Government consumption: 18.5%

Investment in fixed capital: 15.3%

Investment in inventories: 0.3%

Exports of goods and services: 41.4%

Imports of goods and services: -41.7% (2015 EST.)

GDP – composition, by sector of origin:

Agriculture: 2.3%

Industry: 21.6%

Services: 76.1% (2015 EST.)

Agriculture – products:

Grain, potatoes, tomatoes, olives, grapes; sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, dairy products; fish


textiles, clothing, footwear, wood and cork, paper and pulp, chemicals, lubricants, automobiles and auto parts, base metals, minerals, porcelain and ceramics, glassware, technology, telecommunications; dairy products, wine, other foodstuffs; ship construction and refurbishment; tourism, plastics, financial services, optics

Industrial production growth rate:

2% (2015 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 118

Labor force:

5.223 million (2015 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 78

Labor force – by occupation:

Agriculture: 8.6%

Industry: 23.9%

Services: 67.5% (2014 EST.)

Unemployment rate:

12.6% (2015 EST.)

13.9% (2014 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 138

Population below poverty line:

18.7% (2012 EST.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

Lowest 10%: 3.1%

Highest 10%: 28.4% (1995 EST.)

Distribution of family income – Gini index:

34.2 (2013 EST.)

34.2 (2012 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 97


Revenues: $89.94 billion

Expenditures: $96.84 billion (2015 EST.)

Taxes and other revenues:

45.5% of GDP (2015 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 22

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

-3.5% of GDP (2015 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 130

Public debt:

129% of GDP (2015 EST.)

130.2% of GDP (2014 EST.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Country comparison to the world: 6

Fiscal year:

Calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

0.5% (2015 EST.)

-0.2% (2014 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 63

Central bank discount rate:

0.05% (31 December 2014)

0.25% (31 December 2013)

Note: this is the European Central Bank’s rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Country comparison to the world: 144

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

5.1% (31 December 2015 EST.)

5.3% (31 December 2014 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 145

Stock of narrow money:

$61.64 billion (31 December 2015 EST.)

$66.76 billion (31 December 2014 EST.)

Note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

Country comparison to the world: 48

Stock of broad money:

$296.1 billion (31 December 2014 EST.)

$316.2 billion (31 December 2013 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 34

Stock of domestic credit:

$335.8 billion (31 December 2015 EST.)

$366.2 billion (31 December 2014 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 36

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$126.8 billion (31 December 2014 EST.)

$57.04 billion (31 December 2013)

$65.53 billion (31 December 2012 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 40

Current account balance:

$901 million (2015 EST.)

$280 million (2014 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 39


$57.2 billion (2015 EST.)

$62.92 billion (2014 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 46

Exports – commodities:

agricultural products, foodstuffs, wine, oil products, chemical products, plastics and rubber, s, leather, wood and cork, wood pulp and paper, textile materials, clothing, footwear, machinery and tools, base metals

Exports – partners:

Spain 25%, France 12.1%, Germany 11.8%, UK 6.7%, US 5.2%, Angola 4.2%, Netherlands 4% (2015)


$66.44 billion (2015 EST.)

$74.81 billion (2014 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 41

Imports – commodities:

agricultural products, chemical products, vehicles and other transport material, optical and precision instruments, computer accessories and parts, semiconductors and related devices, oil products, base metals, food products, textile materials

Imports – partners:

Spain 32.9%, Germany 12.9%, France 7.4%, Italy 5.4%, Netherlands 5.1% (2015)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$19.62 billion (31 December 2014 EST.)

$17.55 billion (31 December 2013 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 59

Debt – external:

$493.7 billion (31 December 2014 EST.)

$531.6 billion (31 December 2013 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 27

Stock of direct foreign investment – at home:

$169.1 billion (31 December 2015 EST.)

$157.3 billion (31 December 2014 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 32

Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad:

$99.55 billion (31 December 2015 EST.)

$99.55 billion (31 December 2014 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 31

Exchange rates:

Euros (EUR) per US dollar –

0.885 (2015 EST.)

0.7525 (2014 EST.)

0.7634 (2013 EST.)

0.78 (2012 EST.)

0.7185 (2011 EST.)


Electricity – production:

51.67 billion KWh (2013 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 52

Electricity – consumption:

46.25 billion kWh (2013 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 51

Electricity – exports:

5.324 billion KWh (2013 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 30

Electricity – imports:

8.1 billion kWh (2013 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 28

Electricity – installed generating capacity:

19.62 million kW (2013 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 41

Electricity – from fossil fuels:

42.4% of total installed capacity (2013 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 162

Electricity – from nuclear fuels:

0% of total installed capacity (2013 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 166

Electricity – from hydroelectric plants:

28.2% of total installed capacity (2013 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 83

Electricity – from other renewable sources:

29.4% of total installed capacity (2013 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 6

Crude oil – production:

0 bbl. /day (2014 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 181

Crude oil – exports:

0 bbl. /day (2013 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 177

Crude oil – imports:

282,400 bbl. /day (2013 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 28

Crude oil – proved reserves:

538,100 bbl. (1 January 2015 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 100

Refined petroleum products – production:

285,300 bbl. /day (2013 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 45

Refined petroleum products – consumption:

244,200 bbl. /day (2014 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 50

Refined petroleum products – exports:

168,000 bbl. /day (2013 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 38

Refined petroleum products – imports:

86,720 bbl. /day (2013 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 57

Natural gas – production:

0 cu m (2014 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 119

Natural gas – consumption:

4.005 billion cu m (2014 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 65

Natural gas – exports:

0 cu m (2014 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 165

Natural gas – imports:

4.069 billion cu m (2014 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 35

Natural gas – proved reserves:

0 cu m (1 January 2014 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 185

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:

68.8 million Mt (2012 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 50

Communications: PORTUGAL

Telephones – fixed lines:

Total subscriptions: 4,682,997

Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 43 (July 2015 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 34

Telephones – mobile cellular:

Total: 11.715 million

Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 108 (July 2015 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 76

Telephone system:

General assessment: Portugal’s telephone system has a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilities

Domestic: integrated network of coaxial cables, open-wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations

international: country code – 351; a combination of submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, North and East Africa, South Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and the US; satellite earth stations – 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores (2015)

Broadcast media:

Radio e Television de Portugal (RTP), the publicly owned TV broadcaster, operates 2 domestic channels and external service channels to Africa; overall, roughly 40 domestic TV stations; viewers have widespread access to international broadcasters with more than half of all households connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV systems; publicly owned radio operates 3 national networks and provides regional and external services; several privately owned national radio stations and some 300 regional and local commercial radio stations (2008)

Radio broadcast stations:

AM 2, FM 63, shortwave 1 (2008)

Television broadcast stations:

42 (2008)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

3.748 million (2012)

Country comparison to the world: 28

Internet users:

Total: 7.43 million

Percent of population: 68.6% (July 2015 EST.)

Country comparison to the world: 52

Transportation: PORTUGAL


64 (2013)

Country comparison to the world: 77

Airports – with paved runways:

Total: 43

Over 3,047 m: 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 7

1,524 to 2,437 m: 8

914 to 1,523 m: 15

Under 914 m: 8 (2013)

Airports – with unpaved runways:

Total: 21

914 to 1,523 m: 1

Under 914 m: 20 (2013)


Gas 1,344 km; oil 11 km; refined products 188 km (2013)


Total: 3,075.1 km

Broad gauge: 2,439 km 1.668-m gauge (1,633.4 km electrified)

Narrow gauge: 108.1 km 1.000-m gauge

Other: 528 km (gauge unspecified) (2014)

Country comparison to the world: 58


Total: 82,900 km

Paved: 71,294 km (includes 2,613 km of expressways)

Unpaved: 11,606 km (2008)

Country comparison to the world: 57


210 km (on Douro River from Porto) (2011)

Country comparison to the world: 95

Merchant marine:

Total: 109

by type: bulk carrier 8, cargo 35, carrier 1, chemical tanker 21, container 7, liquefied gas 6, passenger 13, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 1, vehicle carrier 9

foreign-owned: 81 (Belgium 8, Colombia 1, Denmark 4, Germany 14, Greece 2, Italy 12, Japan 9, Mexico 1, Norway 2, Spain 18, Sweden 3, Switzerland 3, US 4)

Registered in other countries: 15 (Cyprus 2, Malta 3, and Panama 10) (2010)

Country comparison to the world: 48

Ports and terminals:

Major seaport(s): Leixoes, Lisbon, Setubal, Sines

LNG terminal (import): Sines

Military and Security: PORTUGAL

Military branches:

Portuguese Army (Exercito Portuguesa), Portuguese Navy (Marinha Portuguesa; includes Marine Corps), Portuguese Air Force (Forca Aerea Portuguesa, FAP) (2013)

Military service age and obligation:

18-30 years of age for voluntary military service; no compulsory military service, but conscription possible if insufficient volunteers available; women serve in the armed forces, on naval ships since 1993, but are prohibited from serving in some combatant specialties; reserve obligation to age 35 (2012)

Military expenditures:

1.29% of GDP (2014)

1.2% of GDP (2013)

1.78% of GDP (2012)

Country comparison to the world: 77

Transnational Issues: PORTUGAL

Disputes – international:

Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

Stateless persons: 14 (2015)

Illicit drugs:

Seizing record amounts of Latin American cocaine destined for Europe; a European gateway for Southwest Asian heroin; transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Europe; consumer of Southwest Asian heroin